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Updated: Jun 28, 2023

By Bruce Weber

Harvey Fite Working on Quarry Family,

With Original Placement of Flame, Prayer and Quarry Family,

c. 1945-1950

Opus 40

St. Stephen’s College,

Annandale-on-Hudson, n.d.

Visionary sculptor Harvey Fite, creator of the pioneering earthwork Opus 40, on the grounds of a former commercial bluestone quarry in the High Woods section of Saugerties, New York, was born on Christmas day in 1903 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.(1) His family moved to Brunner, Texas when he was an infant, and soon after his father Thomas acquired a farm in nearby Victoria. After completing high school in Houston, Fite attended Houston Law School from 1923-1926, but decided to abandon law and join the ministry. He enrolled at St. Stephen’s College in Annandale-on-Hudson, New York through a scholarship secured for him by his bishop; the institution was devoted to preparing young men for the Episcopal ministry. In addition to the scholarship, he also earned his way through college by doing carpentry and manual work while studying in the classics program.

Maverick Theatre Program

With Image of the Interior, 1936

Woodstock Public Library District

Matinee Performance

of Jitney Players, n.d.

Billy Rose Theatre Division,

New York Public Library

In the spring of 1929, Fite discovered a notice on the school bulletin board announcing the summer season of the Maverick Theatre Company. Aspiring now to a career as an actor he joined the company and moved into a cabin at the Maverick art colony across the Hudson River in West Hurley, New York, a short distance from Woodstock. At the end of the summer season he joined a stock company, known as the Jitney Players, that performed restoration plays, including Shakespeare. This was followed by a period as an actor at the Bulgarov Russian Theatre in New York City. During rehearsals and breaks in the performance, Fite began to occupy his time by whittling discarded seamstresseis’ spools and other bits of wood that he found backstage, and discovered whittling to be a source of pleasure and creativity.

Woodstock School of Painting,

With Instructor Listing, 1931

Classroom Barns of

Judson Smith Property,

Ohayo Mountain Road, Woodstock

From 1931-1933, Fite lived in Princeton, New Jersey in a barn on the farm of Louis Corti, one of his former professors at St. Stephens. He worked at a variety of odd jobs, and developed a serious interest in carving. In 1933 Fite returned to upstate New York where he was employed as the registrar of the Woodstock School of Painting, and attended classes in painting with Judson Smith and Henry Lee McFee, and drawing with Konrad Cramer.(2) He became a full-time resident of the Maverick, where its founder Hervey White encouraged his interest in visual art.

Bard College Production of

Wuthering Heights,

Harvey Fite Standing

Beside Fireplace, 1935

Bard College Archives

Corrado Vigni

Corrado Vigni (1888-1956)

Edda Mussolini Ciano, c. 1935

Gelatin silver print

Getty Images

In 1933, St. Stephens College dropped its religious mandate. Columbia University in New York assumed a paternal responsibility for the school, renamed it Bard College, and changed its status to a college of liberal arts. Fite was originally hired to teach drama, and wrote, directed and performed in school productions. He encouraged the administration to include an art department, which he soon headed. During his summers off from teaching in 1935 and 1936, Fite studied sculpture in Florence, Italy with Corrado Vigni, who is best known for the public sculptures he created throughout Italy during the Fascist era.

Wendell Jones (1899-1956)

Tomas Penning in High Woods Studio,

c. 1946-1948

Gelatin silver print

Following his return from Italy in 1937, Fite studied stone carving techniques with Tomas Penning at his studio in the High Woods section of Saugerties in the Hudson Valley.(3) He continued, however, to also work in a traditional manner. In March 1939, his four beautifully modeled and perfectly cast figures Alma Mater, Victoria, The American Tragedy, and The Last Mile were exhibited at Vassar College in Poughkeepsie, New York. As a sign of his growing interest in direct carving, Fite included samples of wood and a group of tools typically used in carving. At some point in the 1930s he may also have sought out instruction in Woodstock from Alfeo Faggi, who in the 1920s established a reputation as a major America’s sculptor of religious subjects, created in a modern style and spirit.

View of Grand Plaza in Mayan Ruins of Copan, Honduras, 8th Century

Getty Images

Tomas and Elizabeth Penning, Bluestone House, c. 1950

Woodstock Artists

Association Archives

John Kleinhans (b 1942)

Former Quarry Pool and Bluestone Patio of Tomas and Elizabeth Penning, High Woods, 2020

Tomas Penning (1905-1982)

Nude with Vase, Penning Property, High Woods, c. 1935-1936


Penning Family Archives

Tomas Penning (1905-1982)

Bou Saada Furlough, Penning Property, High Woods, 1948


Penning Family Archives

Fite spent the summer of 1938 in Honduras where he was hired by the Carnegie Corporation as a technical advisor in the reconstruction of the grand plaza in the Copan district. He debated the idea of choosing whether he wanted to spend his life reconstructing what man had destroyed, or to spend it creating what he believed man would eventually destroy.(4) The Woodstock writer and bookstore owner Sylvia Day reported that after his return from Honduras and “visiting the Penning's in High Woods and seeing what could be done with an abandoned [bluestone] quarry he searched the countryside for three months [for a quarry of his own].”(5) Fite was Inspired by Penning’s passion for bluestone as a medium in his art, and what he had accomplished with bluestone on his property, where he designed and oversaw the construction of a house, studio, and patio in the native stone, and placed sculpture on the grounds silhouetted against the woods, sky and distant mountains.(6)

Harvey Fite at the Bluestone Quarry

Harvey Fite’s Former House,

Grounds of Opus 40

Fite initially tried to purchase property on the Maverick to begin what he now envisioned as a large sculpture project, but Hervey White turned him down. He then tramped in the area of High Woods in search of property he hoped would have a combination of quarry, water and a view. In December 1938 he purchased a long-abandoned quarry, about a mile from Penning’s property, from the German-born widow of the last quarryman for $376.25. Fite then set about clearing the overgrown property with the machete he brought back from Honduras, and created a path from the roadway onto the property. Fite built a house a short distance from the quarry’s edge utilizing parts of old barns and abandoned houses, and installed the timbers inside out, so the velvety gray surface of the weather-beaten timbers fashioned the interior walls. Among his sources was an old barn from Princeton, and one that stood on the artists Konrad and Florence Ballin Cramer’s property in Woodstock.(7)

Square Dancing at the Wilgus

County Store, n.d.

Penning Family Archives

[Tomas Penning at Right of Center]

Fite had many friends among the farmers and old quarry families of High Woods. If especially heavy lifting was required he organized old fashioned bees among his neighbors to secure their assistance. He attended the Saturday night square dances at the Wilgus Country Store. He was a member of the local group Cheats and Swings, and joined them in giving exhibitions of square dancing. He hosted popular swimming parties on his property, in which he invited his local artist friends and their children. He used a 30-foot boom structure as a diving platform for visitors to his 60-foot-long quarry pool.

Harvey and Barbara Fite at Opus 40, Next to Tomorrow, n.d.

Opus 40

"Harvey Fite Marries

Mrs. Barbara Richards,"

Kingston Daily Freeman,

November 27, 1944, p. 3

In 1943, Fite was introduced to Barbara Richards by the painter and art writer Norbert Heerman at a dinner party in Woodstock, where she had recently moved from New York with her two children. Richards was raised and educated in Europe, where her father, the artist Frank P. Fairbanks, was head of the School of Fine Arts at the American Academy in Rome. Fairbanks had a short career as a film actress in Italy, and in 1941 was divorced from the United States foreign officer J. Bartlett Richards. Upon visiting the quarry site in High Woods she wondered about the audacity of anyone who believed they could shape what appeared as a sea of rocks. Fite later said to her: “This is my spider web, and the right fly will get trapped.”(8) The couple married in November 1944.

Original Placement of Sculpture

at Opus 40,Including Flame,

Quarry Family and Prayer, n.d.

Opus 40

Original Placement of Sculpture

at Opus 40,Including Flame

Prayer and Tomorrow, n.d.

Schleicher Family Archives

Harvey Fite Working on Quarry Family,

With Original Placement of Flame, Prayer and Quarry Family,

c. 1945-1950

Opus 40

In early 1940, Fite began to work toward his dream of designing and building a sculptural landscape not far from the foot of Overlook Mountain. He planned to create a series of works to stand upon his sculptural landscape, which would celebrate the brotherhood of man, and the assimilation of the races, tied together into something roughly equivalent to a Hindu Temple or a medieval cathedral. The idea for undertaking a race based project may have been spurred by Malvina Hoffman's The Races of Man, which she executed over the course of 1930-1933 for the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago, and includes thirty full length figures, thirty busts and one hundred and fifty facial masks. Upon its completion The Races of Man occupied the museum’s one hundred and sixty foot long Hall of Man.

Fite first called his project "High Woods." His stepson Tad Richards relates that he "really resisted giving it a name at all. It didn't become ’Opus 40‘ until after the monolith was raised [in the early 1960s]."(9) Envious of musical composers’ freedom to title their works simply Opus 1 or Opus 2, Fite at that time settled on the name Opus 40, calculating that it would take him at least 40 years to finish what he originally envisioned, whose construction and style was spurred on by his study of the massive stone monuments and structures of ancient Mesoamerica, particularly of the Mayan civilization.

In 1938, Fite compared Mayan architecture to that of Classical Greek sculpture of the 5th and 4th centuries BC, and expressed his belief that the art of Greek sculpture of this time "lies in the perfect idealization of a factual reality [whereas the] greatness of Mayan sculpture lies in a totally different motivation. 'Pure art is not a matter of science or manual dexterity. It is intellectual and philosophic, and the artist must satisfy the aesthetic sense by working with the limitations of his material. The Maya did exactly this. On this premise, the sculpture of Copan is more pure art than the art of the fourth and fifth century Greek.'" (10)

To help envision his monumental undertaking Fite traveled over the next several decades to see ancient sculpture in its native setting in South America, Central America, Asia and Africa. In around 1962, Fite decided that the pedestals for his series of sculptures and the surrounding bluestone structures had grown into a sculpture all unto itself, and moved the series of works to the outskirts of the property. “After all,” he asked, “how could they compare with this?”(11)

E, Davis (?-?)

Caricature of Havvey Fite, 1945

The Hue and Cry, June 16, 1945, p. 2

In the June 16, 1945 issue of the Woodstock magazine The Hue and Cry, the Maverick author Henry Morton Robinson praised Fite for his perseverance in twisting “stubborn beauty out of the most recalcitrant stone . . . because he is more stubborn than the stone itself. . . . he has transformed a quarry-dump into a minor wonder of the world because he had the vision to see beauty where others saw only a heap of ugly debris. [In time] bluestone’s natural color modulates to weathered gray and silver. . . . The only drawback to working with this ageless stone is the fearful challenge it hurls at the sculptor. Says Fite, ‘The man who carves bluestone must create a design of lasting dignity, or his work will live to mock him.’”(12) The article in The Hue and Cry also featured a caricature of a smiling Harvey Fite by artist E. Davis.

Opus 40, 1970s

Four Views of Areas of Opus 40

From Various Dates

Over the course of the 1940s and early to mid 1950s, Opus 40 underwent a major part of its construction. The painter Ralph Moseley, who wrote a master’s thesis on Opus 40 while attending Bard College, has pointed out that by the “late 1950s and 1960s his forms became less complex and more restrained. The plethora of sizes and rapid curves which dominates the early parts gives way in the later sections to larger, more simplified masses which are arranged in open, regular spacing. The curves are drawn out and are gentler and create a measured pulse . . . .”(13) Interestingly, Fite chose to build Opus 40 around existing trees on the site, and to incorporate them into the overall design.

During a visit in the summer of 1945 the New York art critic Emily Genauer became a fan. In a column for the New York World Telegram, she raved about how the “[ramps and terraces] grade and curve [and] seem the subtlest echo of the distant hills themselves. Their color is perfectly suited to the surroundings – deep blue-gray warmed by the rust of iron deposits left by centuries of dripping water.”(14)

Quarrymans Museum, Opus 40

Following Fite’s retirement in 1969 from teaching at Bard, he purportedly worked incessantly and refused to waste an hour of daylight. Over the decades he covered Opus 40’s six and a half acres of ramps, platforms, pools and hidden passageways with finely fitted bluestone. He used specially made chisels forged in black diamond steel with inserted carbide tips, as well as traditional quarryman’s tools, including hammers, chisels, drills, blasting powder, and a huge hand-powered boom with a flat wooden tray for moving rocks. Many of these tools are now on display in the Quarryman’s Museum on the property of Opus 40 which Fite initially assembled in 1969. He acquired many of the tools from retired quarrymen of the area.

Maria La Yacona (1926-2019)

Harvey Fite at Work on Opus 40, 1950

Many photographs were taken of a physically fit and stripped-to-the-waste Fite at work on his demanding and backbreaking creation. Reputedly, some locals dubbed the shirtless artist "Superman."(15)

Harvey Fite (1903-1976)

Flame, 1943-1944

Harvey Fite (1903-1976)

Tomorrow, 1943-1944

Harvey Fite (1903-1976)

Prayer, 1943-1944

Harvey Fite (1903-1976)

Quarry Family, begun about 1945

Harvey Fite (1903-1976)

Maquettes for Flame, Tomorrow and Quarry Family, c. 1943-1945

Flame was originally the centerpiece of Opus 40. It was surrounded by Quarry Family on the right, Prayer below, and Tomorrow on the left. The ensemble of sculptures, which Fite began working on in 1943, was meant to show a composite of cultures merging over the course of history, and eventually burning out. From the start Flame looked lost in the massive scale of the project.

Fite explained that the bottom of Flame "is Greek fluting, the pelvis is Oriental, the torso Renaissance, and the head and raised arms are totally abstract, going off into flame shapes so that the whole was meant to show a composite of cultures as they historically merge and burn themselves out.” (16) Flame, Tomorrow and Prayer were part of a solo exhibition Fite held on the sculptor’s property in August 1945, which included 35 works created in a wide variety of materials.

Harvey Fite (1903-1976)

Opus 40

Shotwell Memorial, Artist’s Cemetery, Woodstock, c. 1948-1952

Hervey Fite (1903-1976)

Opus 40

In 1952, a huge stone was found in a nearby streambed in the town of Ruby. Due to a dispute over the ownership of the stone it took 12 years before Fite could get clear title. One of the single most challenging problems in the construction of Opus 40 was the raising of the nine-ton monolith in the place of Flame. It was successfully pulled into an upright position by a method invented by the ancient Egyptians. The year the stone was discovered in Ruby the same method had been used by a team of workers to lift the Shotwell Memorial (also made of bluestone, and conceived by Penning and designed in part by Penning and Bruno Zimm) into place at Woodstock’s Artist’s Cemetery. At Opus 40 stone swirls and sweeps and curls together in rhythm to meet at the monolith, which sweeps upward into the sky.

Barbara Fite - The Sunday Times-Union, August 29, 1976

Robert Smithson (1938-1973)

Broken Circle, 1971

Emmen, The Netherlands

Robert Morris (1931-2018)

The Grand Rapids Project, 1974

Grand Rapids, Michigan

Today Opus 40 is run by the non-profit organization Opus 40, Inc., established by Barbara Fite, which cares for and promotes the site. It is regarded as a precedent for the monumental sculptures that were created by the generation of earth artists who emerged in the 1960s and 1970s, including Robert Smithson, Robert Morris, Michael Heizer, Carl Andre and Nancy Holt. In 1977, the art historian John Beardsley compared Opus 40 with Smithson’s Broken Circle and Morris’ Grand Rapids Project because of their creative reclamation of the landscape.(17)

Harvey Fite Woking

in House Studio,

Working on Bather,

early to mid 1940s

Opus 40

Harvey Fite (1903-1976)

Jamaican Mother and Child, 1945

Carved ivory-Lignum

Albany Institute of History and Art

Harvey Fite (1903-1976)

Abstract Figure, 1962


Woodstock Artists Association

and Museum

In his independent sculptures, Fite generally favored figurative and animal subjects, and worked in stone, wood and bronze. In addition to bluestone, he employed marble, mahogany, cipollino, alabaster, onyx, ivory, brownstone, ebony, black walnut, among other materials. His subjects, like those of John B. Flannagan, an influential direct carver who worked on the Maverick, were frequently suggested to him by the shape of the material he ran across.

At the Maverick, Fite had the opportunity to associate with Flannagan, as well as sculptors Eugenie Gershoy, Hannah Small and Raoul Hague, who followed Flannagan's example as direct carvers. Art historian and curator John P. Murphy believes Fite's adoption of universal themes as the subject matter for his figurative sculptures was influenced by the lessons he learned from his study of Flannagan's work, and as an outgrowth of his familiarity with the ideas of the mythologist, writer and lecturer Joseph Campbell, whom he also knew on the Maverick in West Hurley.(18)

John B. Flannagan (1895-1942)

Mother and Child, 1932-1933


Frances Lehman Loeb

Art Center, Vassar College

John B. Flannagan (1895-1942)

Standing Ram, 1927-1939

Carved Stone

Brooklyn Museum

John B, Flannagan (1895-1942)

Praying Woman, 1924


Review of Exhibition of John B. Flannagan, Orient Gallery,

Bard College, The Bardian

November 5. 1937, p. 3

Flannagan had a strong influence on the style, expression and character of some of Fite's early efforts, particularly in their pared down simplicity, goal of making a simple direct statement with such ease that the work seems hardly to be carved but to have endured always, and alignment with the spiritual or animistic forces of nature, Flannagan's art may have also helped open Fite's eyes to the indigenous art of the Aztec, Mayan and Inca civilizations in Central and South America. It was Fite and Penning who were undoubtedly responsible for the exhibition of a small group of Flannagan's sculptures at the Orient Gallery at Bard College in the fall of 1937, which was reviewed by Henry J. Wellwether in the November issue of The Bardian.

Harvey Fite (1903-1976)

Man and Mermaid, n.d.


Woodstock Artists Association

and Museum

Harvey Fite (1903-1976)

And His Anger Waxed Hot, 1948


Harvey Fite (1903-1976)

Gluttony, c. 1951


Article on Harvey Fite

Exhibition in Paris, 1960

Harvey Fite Scrapbook

Fite adopted different styles depending on the subject and his interests at the time, and his sculptures were inspired by a broad range of sources. His pieces range from the traditionally conceived Jamaican Mother and Child to the more experimental Abstract Figure, created in ebony and featuring a black marble base. In his sculpture Fite rendered the spectrum of human emotions, ranging from the romantic enthusiasm of young lovers to the fiery anger of the biblical Moses, represented in And His Anger

Waxed Hot.

Harvey Fite (1903-1976)

Dance II, c. 1965

Black walnut

Harvey Fite (1903-1976)

Dance VI, 1967

Black Walnut

Woodstock Artists Association

and Museum

Constantin Brancusi (1876-1957)

Bird in Space, 1932-1940

Polished brass

Guggenheim Museum

In the mid-1960s, Fite created a series of wood sculptures inspired by the art of dance. The works developed as an outgrowth of his lifelong love and gift for dance. When he was in his early twenties he was accepted as a student to the Denishawn Dance Studio in New York City (the same studio where Martha Graham studied), but turned it down because he had failed to receive a paying scholarship. Fite was an excellent ball room and square dancer. The striking simplicity and soaring elegance of Dance VI brings to mind Brancusi’s Bird in Space.

Dance VI was donated to the Woodstock Artists Association by Barbara Fite, who was the head of the association’s first acquisitions committee. Harvey Fite often showed at the association, where he gave a talk in 1956 on stone carvings from around the world. Fite also exhibited in group showings around the country, and had solo showings in New York City, Cleveland, Ohio, Rome and Paris. From 1945 to 1947, his work was included in the annual of the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York. In late 1950, he had a joint exhibition with the painter Ben Johnson at the S. S. Seahorse Gallery in Woodstock, and in 1969 he had a solo exhibition at the Polari Gallery, located next to the Woodstock Playhouse. A memorial exhibition of Fite's work was held in 1977 at the Woodstock Artists Association.

Harvey Fite Working on

Keystone Masonry, n.d.

Gelatin silver print

Opus 40

Harvey Fite with Mars, 1958

Norman Kent, "A Sculptor's Quarry,"

American Artist, January 1958, p. 31

Opus 40 with View From a Distance

of Overlook Mountain,

May 2022

Harvey Fite died in 1976 as the result of bizarre accident. He was driving a tractor at the edge of the quarry on his property when its gears jammed. The machine went into reverse, and Fite toppled over the edge of the quarry and struck his head on the bluestone twelve feet below. Fite’s ashes were spread over the stones of Opus 40. Following his tragic death, just four years short of the span he envisioned to complete his astonishing life’s work, the Woodstock artist and musician John Pike summed up his friend’s life and aspirations in a few succinct and apt words: “[Harvey Fite] lost his life doing what he wanted most – working on Opus 40.“(19)

(1) I would like to thank Tad Richards for sharing a digital file of the Harvey Fite scrapbook in his possession. A photocopy of the scrapbook is found in the Harvey Fite files in the Woodstock Artists Association Archives. Additionally, Richards in the author of the highly informative Opus 40: The First 40 Years: Pictures Taken from the Opus 40 Archives (Privately Printed, 2012). I would like to thank Caroline Crumpacker, Executive Diector, Opus 40, for generously assisting with my research and providing a selection of photographic images of Opus 40.

(2) “Fite to Show Figures Carved from Bluestone,” Catskill Mountain Star, August 17, 1945, otherwise unidentified article in Harvey Fite Scrapbook. McFee is noted as Fite’s painting teacher in Tram Combs, “Barbara Fite on Opus 40,” Woodstock Times, August 27, 1987, p. 48.

(3) Ralph Moseley, “Opus 40: A Historical Perspective,” Bard-St. Stephen’s Alumni Magazine 11 (February 1968): p. 4. Moseley became friendly with Penning at the Byrdcliffe home of Betty and Holiister Sturgis, where he had the opportunity to directly discuss Penning’s relationship with Fite. I had the opportunity to discuss Moseley's relationship with Penning in a telephone conversation held in January 2020.

(4) “Thumb Box Sketch,” otherwise unidentified newspaper clipping, Harvey Fite Scrapbook. This article probably appeared in the Catskill Mountain Star.

(5) Sylvia Day, “Thumb Box Sketches: Harvey Fite,” Catskill Mountain Star, July 14, 1950, p. 3. (6) ”Fite to Show Figures Carved from Bluestone,” Catskill Mountain Star, August 17, 1945, otherwise unidentified article, Harvey Fite Scrapbook. For a recent study of Penning's life and career see the author’s essay “Native Stone: The Art of Tomas Penning,“ in Native Stone: The Art of Tomas Penning (1905-1982) (Woodstock, New York, Woodstock School of Art, 2021), pp. 7-47. Also see the three essays exploring aspects of Penning’s life and career in

(7) This information was related to the author by Gordon Taylor (brother-in-law of the artists Konrad and Florence Ballin Cramer) in an interview of July 25, 2018. For information about the construction of the house see Gledhill Cameron, “Life of a Modern Pioneer Can be Fun: Sculptor and Wife Discover It Adds Up to Happiness,” New York World-Telegram, June 20, 1945, otherwise unidentified article in Harvey Fite Scrapbook.

(8) Fite is quoted in Tram Combs, p. 45

(9) Email from Tad Richards, May 27, 2022.

(10) "Mayas vs Greeks: Bard Professor Says he Prefers Former," New York Sun, March 4, 1938. otherwise unidentified article, Harvey Fite Scrapbook.

(11) Fite is quoted in “Task at an Abandoned Quarry,” otherwise unidentified article, Harvey Fite Scrapbook.

(12) Henry Morton Robinson, "Woodstock Profiles No 1," The Hue and Cry 1 (June 16, 1945): 2. Robnson is identified as the author in a typescript of the article, titled “From an Abandoned Stone-Pile, An American Sculptor is Quarrying Immortality,” Harvey Fite Scrapbook.

(13) Moseley, p. 5. Additionally, Ralph Moseley is the author of “Opus 40: A Sculpture by Harvey Fite,” M.A. Thesis, Hunter College, 1967. Fite’s art also is the subject of a chapter in John P. Murphy, “Back to the Garden: The Woodstock Artists’ Colony,” Ph.D. dissertation, Northwestern University, 2017, pp. 269-281. I would like to thank Tad Richards and John P. Murphy for sharing copies with the author. In his dissertation (p. 271), Murphy suggests that the architecture of the bluestone quarry amphitheater on the Maverick may have had a role in inspiring Opus 40.

(14) Emily Genauer, “Fite’s Acropolis in the Woods,” New York World-Telegram, September 1, 1945, otherwise unidentified article, Harvey Fite Scrapbook

(15) Maria La Yacona, "'Acropolis in the Catskills," Parade Magazine, 1950, otherwise unidentified article, Harvey Fite Scrapbook.

(16) Fite is quoted in Moseley, “Opus 40: A Historical Perspective,” p. 4.

(17) John Beardsley, Probing the Earth: Contemporary Land Projects (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1977), p. 35.

(18) Murphy, “Back to the Garden: The Woodstock Artists’ Colony,” p. 272.

(19 ) Pike is quoted in Peter Kutschera, “Sculptor’s Opus Without an End,” The Times Herald Record, May 11, 1976, otherwise unidentified article, Harvey Fite Scrapbook.

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